Illustration: Oscar Ramos Orozco

The Future of Self-Improvement, Part II: The Dilemma of Coaching Yourself

What separates those who accomplish outstanding feats from those who don’t? According to author and researcher Joshua Foer, it’s the dedication and willpower to doggedly push beyond the “OK Plateau.” When most of us learn a new skill, we work to get just “good enough” and then we go on autopilot.

We hit what Foer calls the “OK Plateau,” where we have gained sufficient skills for our needs; at which point, we stop pushing ourselves. But experts – those who excel beyond all others in their fields – do it differently.
Foer identified four principles that he saw the experts using to remain alert and to keep learning:

1. Experts tend to operate outside their comfort zone and study themselves failing.

2. Experts will try to walk in the shoes of someone who’s more competent than them.

3. Experts crave and thrive on immediate and constant feedback.

4. Experts treat what they do like a science. They collect data, they analyze data, they create theories, and they test them.

In essence, those who excel beyond the pack are pushing themselves continually so that they are never on autopilot. As Foer posits in the last point, there are very much like scientists in a lab – constantly reflecting on the data, formulating new hypotheses, testing them, and then analyzing the outcome.

An excellent example of these “expert qualities” in action is Rhodes scholar, New York Knicks star basketball player, Olympic gold medalist, former New Jersey senator and presidential candidate, and bestselling author Bill Bradley. In 1965, when Bradley was the best amateur basketball player in the United States, an in-depth profile highlighted his unparalleled work ethic.

Here’s writer John McPhee on Bradley’s training regime during high school:

[Bradley] borrowed the keys to the gym and set a schedule for himself that he adhered to for four full years – in the school year, three and a half hours every day after school, nine to five on Saturday, one-thirty to five on Sunday, and, in the summer, about three hours a day. He put ten pounds of lead slivers in his sneakers, set up chairs as opponents and dribbled in slalom fashion around them, and wore eyeglass frames that had a piece of cardboard taped to them so that he could not see the floor, for a good dribbler never looks at the ball.

In part I of this article series, we looked at the powerful role that self-control and grit play in driving outstanding achievement. Two qualities that Bradley seems to have in spades. However, above and beyond these traits, Bradley brings something else to the equation – a formidable capacity for self-analysis:

Most basketball players appropriate fragments of other players’ styles, and thus develop their own. This is what Bradley has done, but one of the things that sets him apart from nearly everyone else is that the process has been conscious rather than osmotic… Bradley’s graceful hook shot is a masterpiece of eclecticism. It consists of the high-lifted knee of Los Angeles Lakers’ Darral Imhoff, the arms of Bill Russell, of the Boston Celtics, who extends his idle hand far under his shooting arm and thus magically stabilizes the shot, and the general corporeal form of Kentucky’s Cotton Nash, a rookie this year with the Lakers.

Because Bradley’s inclination to analyze every gesture in basketball is fairly uncommon, other players look at him as if they think him a little odd when he seeks them out after a game and asks them to show him what they did in making a move that he particularly admired. They tell him that they’re not sure what he is talking about, and that even if they could remember, they couldn’t possibly explain, so the best offer they can make is to go back to the court, try to set up the situation again, and see what it was that provoked his appreciation. Bradley told me about this almost apologetically, explaining that he had no choice but to be analytical in order to be in the game at all. “I don’t have that much natural ability,” he said.

As McPhee points out, what truly distinguished Bradley from the other players, beyond his powerful work ethic, was his relentless analysis. Bradley treated his basketball game like a scientist, or a coach, would – constantly tinkering, testing, and refining it.

If we want to cultivate expertise, or “genius,” or whatever you want to call it, we need to be able to step outside of ourselves, observe how we are operating, reflect on what could be better, theorize how we could change it, and then test out a solution. The problem is: This is very, very hard for most people.

Pretty much anyone can work hard and adapt their performance if they understand where they are going wrong. However, identifying what needs to be fixed can be difficult. This has little to do with intelligence or even talent, I would argue, and a lot more to do with being one person, in one body.

Or, as writer Atul Gawande puts it in an excellent piece on the habits of top performers, it can be difficult to be our own “outside eyes and ears”:

Élite performers, researchers say, must engage in “deliberate practice” – sustained, mindful efforts to develop the full range of abilities that success requires. You have to work at what you’re not good at. In theory, people can do this themselves. But most people do not know where to start or how to proceed. Expertise, as the formula goes, requires going from unconscious incompetence to conscious incompetence to conscious competence and finally to unconscious competence. The coach provides the outside eyes and ears, and makes you aware of where you’re falling short. This is tricky. Human beings resist exposure and critique; our brains are well defended. So coaches use a variety of approaches – showing what other, respected colleagues do, for instance, or reviewing videos of the subject’s performance. The most common, however, is just conversation.

A staff writer for the New Yorker, a bestselling author, and a highly accomplished surgeon, Gawande is what most of us would consider to be an incredibly talented, over-achiever. Yet, even he struggles with self-improvement:

I’ve been a surgeon for eight years. For the past couple of them, my performance in the operating room has reached a plateau. I’d like to think it’s a good thing – I’ve arrived at my professional peak. But mainly it seems as if I’ve just stopped getting better.

During the first two or three years in practice, your skills seem to improve almost daily. It’s not about hand-eye coördination – you have that down halfway through your residency. As one of my professors once explained, doing surgery is no more physically difficult than writing in cursive. Surgical mastery is about familiarity and judgment. You learn the problems that can occur during a particular procedure or with a particular condition, and you learn how to either prevent or respond to those problems.

Outside of work, Gawande plays tennis. When a serendipitous encounter at a sports club led to some impromptu tennis coaching, he began to wonder: Could his surgery technique improve with coaching? After all, even Rafael Nadal has a coach, and he’s one of the best players in the world.Gawande decides to experiment. He invites Robert Osteen, a retired general surgeon he admires to observe him in the operating theatre and give feedback. As Gawande performs a thyroidectomy,  a procedure he’s performed thousands of times before, Osteen watches. This is the outcome:

[Osteen] asked me to pay more attention to my elbows. At various points during the operation, he observed, my right elbow rose to the level of my shoulder, on occasion higher. “You cannot achieve precision with your elbow in the air,” he said. A surgeon’s elbows should be loose and down by his sides. “When you are tempted to raise your elbow, that means you need to either move your feet” – because you’re standing in the wrong position – “or choose a different instrument.”He had a whole list of observations like this. His notepad was dense with small print. I operate with magnifying loupes and wasn’t aware how much this restricted my peripheral vision. I never noticed, for example, that at one point the patient had blood-pressure problems, which the anesthesiologist was monitoring. Nor did I realize that, for about half an hour, the operating light drifted out of the wound; I was operating with light from reflected surfaces. Osteen pointed out that the instruments I’d chosen for holding the incision open had got tangled up, wasting time.

That one twenty-minute discussion gave me more to consider and work on than I’d had in the past five years. It had been strange and more than a little awkward having to explain to the surgical team why Osteen was spending the morning with us. “He’s here to coach me,” I’d said. Yet the stranger thing, it occurred to me, was that no senior colleague had come to observe me in the eight years since I’d established my surgical practice. Like most work, medical practice is largely unseen by anyone who might raise one’s sights. I’d had no outside ears and eyes.

For those of us who are not natural-born scientists of self-analysis, coaching may well be the best possible solution for cultivating the skills to push ourselves to the next level. It’s not surprising then that recent years have seen an increase in coaching of all kinds: time management coaches, career coaches, executive coaches, and so on.

Yet, coaching as Gawande notes, comes at a price: Exposure. If we want to improve, we must be willing to show our weaknesses, accept criticism, and try to change. Like Bradley, a select few can self-coach, conducting the entire analytical process internally. But, regardless of who’s doing the coaching – you or someone else – the bottom line is: It’s uncomfortable.

Which brings us back to Foer’s assertion: Experts tend to operate outside their comfort zone and study themselves failing.

This ability to tolerate, and even embrace, uncomfortableness may well be the “X factor” that underpins outstanding achievement. Self-control, grit, self-analysis… these are not comfortable qualities.

But, as renowned performance artist Marina Abramovic, a woman who has dedicated her life and her body to creating uncomfortable art, has said: “Nobody ever changes when they do things they like.”

What’s Your Take?

How do you coach yourself? Or have you tried using an external coach of some kind?

Read Part I in The Future of Self-Improvement series.

Jocelyn K. Glei

more posts →
A writer and the founding editor of 99U, Jocelyn K. Glei is obsessed with understanding how work gives our lives meaning. She has authored three books about work, creativity, and business, including the Amazon bestsellers Manage Your Day-to-Day and Make Your Mark. Follow her @jkglei.
load comments (45)
  • Rishi Khare

    thanks for both articles, they are very very helpful. Best part about both articles is their fresh approach or newness, it is not beating around the bush or telling the same old story in new words, it is about concrete ways to identify and solve the problem. 

  • :Daniela*

    Just to say that scientists don’t necessarily self-analyze themselves just because they job is to analyze the world around them. Scientists can be the less self-analyzers you can meet. I tell you this as a scientist myself. I think I was born with a very self-analytic mind and that made me follow a scientific career. However, most of the time I see myself surrounded by the less self-analyzing people I’ve ever met, although I research in the cognitive neuroscience field. In fact my boss says that he doesn’t believe in all the things 99% talks about (maybe that’s why I like 99% so much and I dislike my boss for a 99%, hehehe): not coaching, not therapy, not improving by being conscious, etc. So, although scientists can have a brightfull mind, most of them lack of an open mind, necesarry to self-improve.

  • mrlaboeuf

    self-certified expert :)

  • Rachel

    Thanks for the article. I wonder how somebody would translate these same ideas to non-physical pursuits, such as writing or programming? It seems this might be difficult without another person’s opinion, because it can be hard to separate yourself from your work. Any thoughts on this?

  • Arnab Bandhu

    I think by “scientists” here the author means people who are observing and experimenting with themselves or their own actions.

  • Swygert

    “It’s not surprising then that recent years have seen an increase in coaching of all kinds: time management coaches, career coaches, executive coaches, and so on.”

    This is even more true now that people who aren’t finding jobs via the usual methods are become coaches as a way to put their good management and people skills to use in a consulting or freelance environment.  Ask around.  Chances are that the spouse of a friend, or a friend of a friend or a friend, is just starting out as a coach, and will be willing to work with you for relatively little money in order to get experience and references.  I used a new life coach when I made my job change in 2002 and not only was it cheap, it was a phenomenal experience, even though I was one of her first clients.  Yes, sometimes you need to reach out to an expert to refine your techniques (which I also did at the time) – but sometimes you just need a fresh, objective, friendly pair of eyes to look at your plans and ideas and help you prioritize and practice at them.

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  • 123

    Experts not only want to continually self-improve, but continually improve to the state of advancement.

  • Rafael

    Good article. New insights. Thanks

  • Therapistmumble

    I believe what is stated here is basically true, but it only focuses on the positive aspects of begin driven to succeed. I believe. That many more people have the capacity to. Be seen as creative visionaries, but they choose not to. The article seems to imply that great people choose to push through barriers, but it does not say is that these are people who sacrifice family, friends and comradeship because of narcissism, self-promotion. And a need to be well-known. Especially in our media age, self-promotion is often more important than great ideas.

    There are few people like Steve Jobs because most people don’t want to be the kind of person he was.

  • Carolyn Hastie

    I really enjoyed this piece, thank you. I’ve had a great time following all the links about  Marina Abramovic and discovering her work. What a fascinating woman.  I particularly liked the wall of photos of people who cried sitting in her presence and looking eye to eye with her  in her art performance ‘The Artist is present”  in 2010 which is, of course, all about being present and mindful – the essence of this story about self improvement. I was also led to Antony’s work via Marina’s story and found the clip of Antony singing River of Sorrow with the most amazing tribute to the human body and possibilities of expression in the form of a dance… 

    We are amazing creatures!

    So I’ve had a delicious exploration of outstanding feats thanks to this article.  Oh and  I love Atul Gawande’s writing and enjoyed reading that article. Bill Bradley’s delightful admission that he doesn’t have “that much talent” and needed to be analytical to improve is a powerful inspiration for all of us that we can do even more with our lives if we want to. We just need to get off autopilot, which Marina tells us, will involve discomfort and doing things we don’t like. Guess it all comes down to living our values and choosing what’s important to us – nothing more guaranteed to shift comfort zones than that.  Thanks again for this great, thought provoking article.

  • Dawn Groves

    Yet another xlnt article. I read part 1 and of course part 2 is equally good. 
    I coach myself by seeing fear as an ingredient that gives my project (whatever it might be) juice. Not too much fear… that would be stupid and unpleasant. 
    More like what Mihaly Csikszentmihaly calls “flow.”  Placing myself on the edge of my skills. But here’s the key: I don’t expect or look for it. I simply get busy. Flow happens when it happens. If I wait for it or judge my activities as good or bad based on the experience of flow, I’d never get anything done. A lot of dull gardening goes into a happy harvest. But flow is something I appreciate and enjoy. Just the thought of it makes me smile. 
    I’ll tweet your article. Once again. :)

  • dissertation

    great post! i like it)

  • Tilly Webby

    Great article to improvise your talent. I read the previous part too and inspired me alot to read this one too.

  • resume

    amamzing post!

  • Jason

    I am very much interested in self improvement, NLP, coaching etc. But I had a virtual slap in the face recently when a long admired elderly colleague commented that eventually you just have to accept that you are what you are and some things cannot be changed. I instinctively recoiled from this statement having spent so much on improvement books and coaching, but having thought about it for some time there may be some truth in the statement. In the same way that some people have addictive personalities, some people are naturally good looking, some people are 4ft and some people are 7ft, some people people can sing others can draw. We are all subject to the vagaries of genetics. In many cases genetics are obvious, like looks, speed, strength, hair or lack of. Could it not be that it goes much deeper than that. That the ability to focus on a particular thing in a particular way either creatively or with a view to completing or judgementally are all initially genetically is at a genetic level and while we might tinker with certain abilities, you are what you are and cannot really change anything. Obviously playing devils advocate here, but I am interested in the reaction.

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  • CowboyUpMedia

    ‘A lot of dull gardening goes into a happy harvest.’  Very true!

  • CowboyUpMedia

    Great 2-part article.  Much obliged.

    Bill Bradley is a great example of the 10,000 hours to mastery Gladwell talks about in Outliers.

  • dba

    just a big thank you for this article ! Very very instructive.

  • Panayiotis Karabetis

    I find that when I’m uncomfortable with my skills or talent, it is because I need to travel down a different path. Until I do, all productivity and growth come to a halt. This article was a great reminder of that. Nice job!

  • Justin de Beer

    Incredibly interesting. I need to find myself a coach now.

  • Graham Watson

    Thanks for this thought provoking two part posting. Highlighting the point that with hard work and proper reflection just about anyone can achieve true greatness is inspiring. Even in business, the most successful CEO’s are now seen to be the ones who are the most ‘persistent’ –

  • jkglei

    Agreed! Duckworth’s research, mentioned in Part I of the series, has a similar rule of thumb that indicates that excellence truly starts to blossom after 10 years of dedication.

  • jkglei

    I think you make a good point, Jason. Certainly, we all have in-born qualities and characteristics that are unique to us and that we, to a large degree, cannot change. But most “weaknesses” also come with complementary “strengths.” In our travels talking to particularly successful leaders and creatives at 99%, I have certainly heard many successful people argue that it’s more important to focus on your strengths — and building them up — than focusing on your weaknesses. We are all lacking in some areas, but if we are aware of them, we can typically make accommodations, such as hiring someone with that skill set, and so on.

  • jkglei

    Well, I think you’re talking about two different things related to pushing ideas forward here: One is accountability (feeling bound to take action), and Two is collecting feedback (assessing the quality of the work). Some people can do both of these tasks on their own (like Bill Bradley), and some people need assistance with one or both of them! I think it’s a personal thing moreso than one related to athletic vs sedentary activities. But on the writing front, you might find some worthwhile advice in this recent piece:

  • Abcsunflower2003

    Nice, thought provoking article

  • Mingly

    We could go for coaches or therapy or anyone else who is available to give us honest, informed and actionable feedback. Some of us are lucky enough to have people like family or partners to fill this role. :) For the rest of us, I feel like a lot of that self-coaching can come from sharing with others in forums precisely like this. I’m seeing a lot of applications that try to shape the behaviours we’d like to see in ourselves and the whole Quantified Self movement is just the beginning……

  • Julia Serbulov

    Just looked up the Quantified Self – really interesting!

  • Julia Serbulov

    Just looked up the Quantified Self – really interesting!

  • JasonFonceca

    I really resonated with the surgeon with no outside mentors. I was raised in mediocrity surrounded by starving artists… who was there to teach me? But you can find them, if you put your mind to it.

    There are some ‘more successful’, there are celebrity role models, there are libraries, the internet, and so much more.

    Self-coaching is a natural unfolding of a desire for growth.

  • ByJ T Rogers

    Wow, I didn’t relise how much of this I was fallowing. I can be a self coach most of the time but more then anything I study hard my failures. I hate not know what went wrong. I’ve gone through three semesters of college almost failing each semester. I’ve failed in three classes so far. The main reason is I don’t do the homework because of mintail reasons that are still not fully known to me. But what sets me apart from other people failing in the class is I keep showing up to class every day, never missing a day. I’ve been told by a few of my teachers that that is rair. Most students will stop coming after a while. I know each time I can get back to school I’m learning but most importantly I’m learning about myself.

  • Robnonstop

    Sorry but nobody can just draw, that is complete nonsense. For hundred thousands of years people became better at scuplting until they could make perfect replicas of a human face and body, yet they all – without exception – sucked at drawing. Until renegades like Da Vinci who cut dead people open though it was illegal etc.went scientific on arts and collectives (guilds) focused skills in one place, so people could learn from each other. Suddenly people had “talent” to draw. Skills have nothing to do with talent and I demand an official apology of anyone who claims so, in the name of all children who were told bullshit.

  • w00dyw00dpecker

    teach me!

  • Lisa

    Perfect timing! I am studying excellence as part of my master NLP practitioner training. So far we are finding similar results from interviewing exemplars.
    Where’s Part I article?

  • Jo

    thank you for the articles on The Future of Self-Improvement :) most thought-provoking.

  • moodIndigo

    Deep insights to ponder minutes before I enter the new year. Very interesting… thanks!

  • Bill Velasco

    I was once told, “To be successful, you have to be comfortable being uncomfortable.”

  • Todd Dunn

    Marshall Goldsmith teaches a great technique for this in his July 2006 article entitled: Questions that Make a Difference Every Day.  He has a friend, Jim Moore, and the two of them call each other everyday possible and asks each other questions. this is another good way of having a coach..the questions are ones they each wrote themselves that are anchored in their belief system. constant feedback and inquisition from a trusted friend/coach

  • shadowmason

    I share this first hand knowledge with my students. Only wish I could get more to see it. The first in this series of articles call it, grit. I call it passion. Passion sparks enthusiasm and that ignites an individuals surroundings and everyone wants to be part of that special fire and glow.

  • Dennis Ofoborh

    This article hit so many points for me. I work very hard on self development but feel I never quite gain enough returns. Recently thought about coaching and after reading this I think I will acquire outside assistance. 

    Thanks for the article. 

  • Kni

    Thank you Robnonstop. This nature-over-nuture garbage is just a defense mechanism that allows people not to push past the skill level development of OK – and gives teachers/coaches an excuse to overlook their own shortcomings in their role as assistants to someone else’s process to get better at something. Sports, the arts, analytical skills, charm, and yes even “being good looking” are all skills that can be taught and learned. Don’t play the devil’s advocate with this.. It’s not funny or useful. This myth is being told to American children (and adults for that matter) every day… and it’s extremely damaging. I cannot overstate how much talent is never exercised because people are misled by this genetic-destiny-limitations crap. “I’m just not good at XYZ..” is accepted as a real world barrier when in fact the VAST majority of people can get better -much better- at something if they can get the opportunity to pursue it. I hope my reaction of unmitigated raw rage at this notion comes through in this comment. This isn’t to deny that other important life aspects might not be in balance in people who focus.. But the limitation of achieving great expertise/skill in something is rarely a person’s quote-unquote natural talent.

  • Derrick Richards

    You’re a bitter idiot. 5 thousand hours is all it takes for you to be an amazing artist and drawer. You should read the genious mindset. Practice makes perfect, and you’re a fool if you don’t think that people can learn to do something so simple as draw.

  • Daniel Tung

    Good articles. But how to actually push ourselves out of our comfort zone? I’ve recently read the book “The Tools”, and its very first tool is a powerful method to do this. I recommend you to have a look.

  • Soongs

    I enjoyed reading this articles (Pt1 & Pt2). It could not have come at a better time. Your self improvement article has pushed me to think of my abilities and how I have always had a fear for exposing my weakness. I would like to think I am a very cautious person; but in reality, it is the fear of failure that prevents me from getting better.

    Thank you again. I hope this reaches out and benefit many others as how it has benefited me.

  • Chuck

    Not to discount the value of hard focused work, but there is an underlying flaw with most or all of these studies in that they look backwards. We are presented with hard working individuals who have succeeded. What we don’t see are all the folks who worked their tails off yet did not succeed. As much as we don’t want to admit it, luck is a large if not the largest factor in success. Hell just being tall or physically attractive has an immense correlation to success (see
    You are not likely to succeed unless you work long and hard. But plenty of people work just as hard and creatively, and yet still don’t make it.

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