Illustration: Oscar Ramos Orozco

A Day Without Distraction: Lessons Learned from 12 Hours of Forced Focus

Here are the rules: All work must be done in blocks of at least 30 minutes. If I start editing a paper, for example, I have to spend at least 30 minutes editing. If I need to complete a small task, like handing in a form, I have to spend at least 30 minutes doing small tasks. Crucially, checking email and looking up information online count as small tasks. If I need to check my inbox or grab a quick stat from the web, I have to spend at least 30 minutes dedicated to similarly small diversions.

I followed these rules for one full work day. This post describes why I did it and what I learned.

Continuous Partial Attention

The motivation for my experiment should sound familiar. Over the past half-decade, researchers have been sounding the alarm on the dangers of multitasking. Gloria Mark, for example, a professor at the University of California at Irvine, found that the technology workers she studied would make it, on average, only 11 minutes into a project before being distracted. It then took 25 minutes to return to the task post-distraction.

For some jobs, where responsiveness is crucial, this work style might be necessary. But as an academic, I’m a to-do list creative — to keep my job, I have to keep up with logistical tasks, but to advance, I need long bouts of focus on hard problems. For a to-do list creative, ignoring the small stuff isn’t an option, but living in a state of continuous partial attention (to steal a phrase from Linda Stone) won’t cut it either.

The solution to this quandary is well-known by now: batching.

Check email only a small number of times per day! Work in big chunks without distraction!Everyone has heard this suggestion. But almost no one follows it.

This is why I launched my experiment. I wanted to see what would happen if I forced myself to batch.

Ignoring the small stuff isn’t an option, but living in a state of continuous partial attention won’t cut it either.

A Day of Forced Batching

I have a doctors appointment scheduled for 10 a.m., so I decide to focus on a writing project from 8 to 10.

I feel the normal temptation to check my email while writing — just in case — but my rules forbid it. Even a glance at my inbox would trigger at least 30 minutes of similar small tasks.

When I arrive at my appointment at 10, I discover I had the wrong time. The appointment is not until 11.

My rules force me to think in blocks of 30 minutes or more, so I decide to spend from 10 to 10:30 contininuing work on my writing project at a nearby library. Then, from 10:30 to 11:00, I do my first small tasks block of the day. I have high hopes during this first small task block that I will efficiently knock off many items from my logistical backlog. Instead, I end up bogged down in my email inbox, trying to sort through who needs what and when.

After my appointment, I head home, go for a run, and make myself lunch.

It’s now 1:30 and I’m in a tight spot. My goal for the afternoon is to continue work on an important research problem. To do so, I need to retrieve the latest draft of our write-up from my email. But this will require a small task block of at least 30 minutes, so I have to be careful about how and when I do this.

Even more tricky, I need to meet with my collaborator to help work through some kinks in the research problem. On a normal day, I might send him an email saying, “when can you meet?”, and then just keep my inbox open until he responds. My rules, however, forbid this strategy (that is, unless I want to dedicate my entire afternoon to checking my inbox and similar small tasks).

I come up with the following solution:

I convert my commute from my apartment back to campus into a small task block. That is, I will retrieve the write-up draft and check my email right before I leave my apartment. I will think through my emails and how to respond while traveling. Then when I arrive at my office, I’ll send off those replies and shut down the small task block.

I feel the normal temptation to check my email while writing – just in case – but my rules forbid it.

To handle my meeting dilemma, I send my collaborator an email that reads: “During the following times this afternoon I’ll be working on this  project, if you happen to be free anytime in here, stop by my office,  otherwise tell me some times when we might meet tomorrow and I will get back to you at the end of the day to fix one.”  I’ve now freed myself from needing to keep my inbox open during the afternoon.

From 2 to 5:30 I’m working on my research problem. The rules remove any possibility of distraction — no matter how brief — and this seems to improve my focus. “There’s a real sense of momentum here,” I write in my notes.

At 5:30, I decide to do one final small task block to shut down my day. I treat this like a challenge: how much can I squeeze into one 30-minute block? The time constraint provides a certain urgency to my actions usually lacking at 5:30 in the evening. I end up finishing my work emails for the day, answering some blog reader emails, paying the rent, approving a design concept, sending a message to a pair of old friends, planning the next day, and recording the notes from this experiment.

In the end, the momentum carries me past 6:00 and I end up finishing closer to 6:30. This is later than I normally like to work, but the day ends with a satisfying feeling of accomplishment.

Conclusions

I’ll start with the negative aspects of this experiment:

Batching, as it turns out, is hard.

It requires that you plan ahead to make sure you have the material and information needed for focused blocks. It also requires careful communication. Answering emails, for example, is complicated when you need those emails to include all of the information needed for the next actions to be taken. (It’s much easier to use email for informal back and forth dialogue.)  Because of this, tackling my inbox during the experiment was surprisingly draining.

In other words, batching requires more work than not batching. This is why, I now understand, most people are quick to abandon their good-natured attempts to enforce more focus in their day: once it becomes non-obvious how to continue, they toss the goal.

But then there are the positives:

Having a clear rule that forbids any distraction during focused work was freeing. I still felt drawn toward diversion, but knowing that acquiescence was not even a possibility reduced its urgency.

On the flip side, the percentage of time spent in a flow state was as large as I’ve experienced in recent memory. I ended up spending 2.5 hours focused on my writing project and 3.5 hours focused on my research paper. That’s six hours, in one day, of focused work with zero interruptions; not even one quick glance at email.

Having a clear rule that forbids any distraction during focused work was freeing.

At the same time, the careful pre-planning required to satisfy my batching rules increased the efficiency of my small task completion. Even though I dedicated 6 hours in one 10 hour work day to uninterrupted focus, another 1.5 hours to exercise and eating, and another 1 hour to a doctors appointment, I still managed to accomplish an impressive collection of logistical tasks both urgent and non-urgent.

My bottom line:

To do batching right requires the type of strict rules I deployed in my experiment. These rules, as I discovered, will absolutely make your day more difficult. There’s no avoiding the reality that there will be times when you have to take convoluted action to solve a problem that could so easily be handled with just a quick bounce over to your inbox.

This is a pain in the ass.

At the same time, however, if you survive the annoyance, there’s also no avoiding the reality that your work will be of a much higher quality.

Ultimately, this is the batching trade-off: inconvenience in your daily workflow in exchange for an increased quality of your work.

From my experience writing about productivity, most people will abandon a tactic as soon as it makes their life more difficult. My experience with batching, however, leads me to question whether we need to rethink where we place our emphasis.

What’s Your Take?

Have you experimented with forced focus? How did it go?

Cal Newport

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Cal Newport is a Computer Science professor at Georgetown University and the author of Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World. If you pre-order Deep Work before Christmas, you’ll gain access to a invite-only webinar in which Newport will breakdown exactly how he prioritizes deep work in his own professional life (see here for details).
load comments (1)
  • オリ-マヨール

    Email Game (which only works with Gmail right now, unfortunately) has helped me to use email as a tool rather than turn to it as a distraction (or anxiety!) It may not be for everyone or every occasion, but I recommend trying it out if you use Gmail.

  • Lbarkerstudio

    Does anyone have a suggestion on a good time management app for a mom taking care of a one year old and doing freelance work?

  • Hello

    Rescue Time will help You guys, im using it from some time and its great :). Its time management app, it traces your time in apps on your PC/Mac, gives reports and other stuff.

  • Milhealth

    I actually prefer using Twitter for communicating vs. e-mail. For the majority of things that need to be communicated, 140 characters or less is quite sufficient (via DM, direct message which is private). You can set it up to receive tweets in your e-mail (so you can keep twitter closed, too distracting!). , if it is important to respond to this particular communicator/communication quickly, set up a Mail Rule that assigns a particular sound and ‘preview’ just for that (so you’re not checking your mail all the time –defeating the purpose), or keeping twitter open …. really distracting. One you are finished with that project/client…you can delete that particular rule or edit it (e.g. new/other client or communication).

  • philosophy for the win

    philosophyforthewin.tumblr.com

    Does this not follow the same logic as the baby example in Freakonomics (wherein the books on raising a child don’t necessarily make a good mother but the kind of mother who would buy such a book exemplifies a good mother)? In this case, it would not be that this system necessarily works, but that a person who was willing to be stricter with themselves could avoid the negative effects found in the multi-tasking study.

  • JTM

    Does anyone have a solution how this method may be applied to jobs where you continually respond to requests/issues/demands from customers and co-workers throughout the day? It was stated early in this article that this method may not apply to jobs where “For some jobs, where responsiveness is crucial…”. 

  • Sandra Gonzalez

    There are tons of jobs that are of course, all about multitasking. Sometimes, the best incentive you can have to focus, is time-pressure. When you work at an office managing clients it’s simple: you HAVE TO multitask. The job comes with it!! You have to manage phone calls, check and respond tons of emails and answer to co-workers and clients requests. Rais your hand if you think thats the “ugly” true!!
    So to work properly and get things done IN TIME you just have to focus as much as you can, avoid distractions and learn how to prioritize.
    The to-do list is very useful because you can have in a single sheet all the things you have to accomplish in your working day and their status. My advice, better use that real-paper agenda. What if the power goes off and all you contact info was on screen? (Yes it happens, specially if you live in an earthquake friendly country…like me.)
    An example of good multitasking: If you have to deliver a presentation for the next day, and you plan to have it done for review at 5 PM, then you will have to work it out between the daily things you have to do BEFORE that deadline. Analize the data in 30 minutes in the morning or before lunch. FOCUS those 30 minutes. If can’t find 30 minutes of peace, you’ll have to break that task into shorter periods of time. No other way… A good tip to save time is to use design templates for Keynotes and Power Points reports.
    What about email checking? Well, you cannot win that one… Reality strikes you out, because today, you HAVE TO check you email every minute. Which brings me to the questions… how does your company treats clients? I mean CRM?
    If you get a clients request by mail at 11:00 in the morning, when will him/her expect an answer? At 11:05 or in the afternoon? My guess, better answer him right away a short email like “Ok, I’m working on that, I’ll contact you back this afternoon with a solution”. Then think: will you have to ask someone else in your office to advice you about that specific request? Do you have to delegate that email to another person in your office? Will that person give the client an answer in a proper time lapse? Many people could say, hey, that’s not my job, but guess what… IT’S YOUR CLIENT, and if you don’t care about him/her, the competition may will… And if you need a clients approval or something urgent, just pick up the phone.
    And don’t get mad if you planned agenda doesn’t work well. Think it these way: in 5 years from now, will I remember this day? Unless you can answer that question with a truly thoughful YES, proceed with accuracy, otherwise let it go…

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  • Daylon Soh

    What I find could be additionally helpful is to combine batching (or blocking out zero interruptions task time) with periods where you’re most awake. e.g. early mornings/evenings or after a power nap. Also include periods of intermittent rest.

  • Charlie Lyons

    Awesome. Thank you for this insight. I’ve been toying with the idea of batching for a while but am going to increase the focus on this and have looked at software tools to help me get started on the right track. Thank you!

  • R2 478278

    Great reminder to utilize the small blocks of time and not wait for large blocks of time usually preferred for creative activities.

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  • Human Body Knowledge

    What a great article. My productivity has slumped lately, and I’d forgotten about the Tim Ferriss “batching” approach to email, etc… you’re taking it one step further here and I’m going to start doing the same today! Thanks.

    Jacob
    http://humanbodyknowledge.com/

  • Jki

    Great in theory. The problem with checking email is it also carries the hidden reward of making you seem important. All those emails must mean you matter.

  • David Martinez

    Great article. Most are forgetting that we control our technology, and not the other way around. Distractions is what drives procrastinators(myself being one).

  • Kyle Callahan

    My work day is continuously filled with interruptions. I start the morning with a handful of tasks on my to-do list, and within the first hour I have doubled the list with small tasks requested by managers. Once we open for business, phone calls arrive at random from customers and numerous internal issues arise. Typically, I do a fine job multitasking, although I have a feeling applying batching rules might help reduce the stress of constant demands for immediate response. As a person who enjoys focusing on important work, if I can sort everything into a set time-frame for completion: small, non-crucial task and more time consuming projects, I may find greater satisfaction at the end of each day.  

  • Guest

    doesn’t sound productive at all to be honest.

  • Ehab Subahi

    set email notification to notify me for important emails only. i think this will help removing the urge to check the email until the next small task block

  • Fernando Malta

    I’m using Pomodoro Technique, wich is pretty similar to this and it’s really working for me. Manage time became a skill itself nowadays, for all the reasons mentioned in this article.
    Further reading on Pomodoro Technique: http://www.pomodorotechnique.c

  • Fernando Malta

    Yeah, I’m using Pomodoro as well. It really worked for me.

  • Steffan Antonas

    It’s pretty amazing how productive you can be in small spurts. That was a pretty big eye opener for me.

  • Katja Bak

    Hmm, I get the feeling that this would really work for me. I’m going to try it out… when I can be bothered.

    Ah, procrastination.

  • Jim Kollevik

    I’ve tried to do the “Four hour workday” method. It is simply explained as a method where you write the most important tasks you need to do that day, the tasks that you must have done within 24 hours. Then you take next most important task and so on until you have four or five. Then you do the most important task and then work you threw the others. New tasks everyday because the fourth task that day will be a 24 hour task some other day.

  • ZeanJM

    Ive used this method quite a bit this summer using the iOS app 30/30 to organize my time and create a schedule of focus by building blocks within the app

  • nasrin

    Thank you, I’m going to apply it from right now! I do want high quality working hours.

  • Chaoshead

    I did too but i told myself “this feeling this is it this is what’s it about don’t give up on reading read it whole read it whole” and you know what it worked :D

  • GeeWhiz

    What I do is a bit simpler than your experiment, but it has the same end of stopping the harmful effects of distractions: I set an egg timer for one hour. In that hour I have to either study, write, read or answer important emails. At the end of the hour (or if you prefer, you can make it 45 minutes), I take a 15 minute break to rest, get a snack, check or answer non-essential emails (like setting up a time to meet a friend for the weekend) and things of that sort. Then I re-set the timer for another hour and work hard during that time. This idea is not mine (it comes from a book called The Power of an Hour), but it has worked well for me.

  • http://twitter.com/MSBSDmunis MSBSDmunis

    I enjoyed this article and the concept therein immensely – blocking my time helps me stay focused on a task long enough to actually accomlish something! Of course, things happen to interrupt your time blocks; but one phone call interuption is better than a phone call, plus pausing to check e-mail, plus getting up to stretch, etc.

  • cgbklyn

    I would say that it is NOT the same as the Freakonimics example. I have benefited greatly from the pomorodoro technique and other similar attempts at scheduling, but by nature I am a horrendous time waster. Left to my own devices, I will fritter away time like nobody’s business. But these methods totally work.

  • Juan Marco

    This is interesting. Stumbled upon your article after my mind got a little burnt out and a I was not able to force myself to focus on my programming.
    Thought researching how to focus on the internet would be a worthy
    “waste” of my time.

    Other things I read would recommend sprints of focus of 1 hour and 30 minutes. With 10 minute breaks.

  • http://www.YourEpicLife.com Shelli Johnson

    Great post. Thanks! One tip I have is schedule your weekly calendar during a time when you’re feeling inspired. I agree that most of us have read about the research. I personally am a fan of Tony Schwartz’s Energy Project, and blocking out 60-90 minutes of work at a time. Still, executing on it is another story. So, here’s what works for me, and I recommend it to my friends, colleagues and clients – and anyone looking to be more purposeful with their time. So, while inspired, I will block my time out according to the goals or projects that are most important as well as the people who are most important in my life, as well as my personal passions, self care, etc. (NOTE; I also make sure to allow for 10 minutes in between blocks, to walk around the block, step outside to do 30 burpees, go to the bathroom, drink some water, etc., which also help in my productivity.) Then, when that time comes, a week later, to , I don’t question it, regardless of the temptation to shift to something else or to question the rationale for it being on my schedule. I remind myself that my inspired self knew what she was doing. This sounds hoky, but it’s made all the difference in my life. Thanks again.

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